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Sensory exploitation by males is one mechanism that involves males attempting to overcome female reluctance.
It can result in chase-away selection, which then leads to a co-evolutionary arms race.
Toxicity of seminal fluid: Females benefit from low seminal fluid toxicity, while males benefit from a high toxicity level as it increases their competitive edge Female fecundity: Males benefit from a high female fecundity as it means that females can produce more offspring and have a higher potential for reproduction.
It is important to note that females also benefit from high fecundity, and thus this trait is probably more affected by classical natural selection.
Sexual conflict or sexual antagonism occurs when the two sexes have conflicting optimal fitness strategies concerning reproduction, particularly over the mode and frequency of mating, potentially leading to an evolutionary arms race between males and females.
For example, the Neotropical spider, Paratrechalea ornata, displays nuptial gift-giving behaviors during courtship as a part of their male mating efforts.
Sexual conflict may lead to antagonistic co-evolution, in which one sex (usually male) evolves a favorable trait that is offset by a countering trait in the other sex.
Similarly, interlocus sexual conflict can be the result of what is called a perpetual cycle.
These nuptials gifts allow the male to control copulation duration and to increase the speed of female oviposition.
Degree of female fidelity: Because female fidelity depends on the species' particular mating system, therefore they are in the middle section of the spectrum.
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The trait value bar at the bottom of the accompanying figure indicates the relative intensity of each trait.